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AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

Age-related Macular Degeneration is a problem associated with retina. It happens when the central light-sensitive part of the retina called the macula is damaged, which is crucially responsible for sharp, detailed Central vision. That’s why with Age-Related Macular Degeneration the central vision of a person is lost, but the peripheral vision will still remain normal. For instance, imagine you are looking at a watch with Age-Related Macular Degeneration, you might see the numbers in the watch but not the hands.

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AGE RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

Age-related Macular Degeneration is a problem associated with retina. It happens when the central light-sensitive part of the retina called the macula is damaged, which is crucially responsible for sharp, detailed Central vision. That’s why with Age-Related Macular Degeneration the central vision of a person is lost, but the peripheral vision will still remain normal. For instance, imagine you are looking at a watch with Age-Related Macular Degeneration, you might see the numbers in the watch but not the hands.

“Age-related” means that it often happens in older age. It is a bilateral disease of persons over 50 years of age.it is the leading cause of blindness in developed countries, in populations above the age of 65 years.

WHO IS AT RISK FOR AGE RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

You are more likely to develop Age-Related Macular Degeneration if  you :

  • are overweight
  • are over 50 years old
  • Sudden flashes of light that appear when looking to the side
  • Smoke cigarettes
  • have hypertension
  • Eat a diet high in saturated fat( food like meat, butter, and cheese)
  • have a family history of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Having heart disease is another risk factor for Age-Related Macular Degeneration, as is having high cholesterol levels. Caucasians (white people) also have an elevated risk of getting Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

TYPES AND CAUSES FOR AGE RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

The exact cause of AMD is not known, but it has been linked to a number of risk factors. These include having excess weight and high blood pressure, smoking, and having a family history of the condition.

TYPES OF AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

1.Dry form of Age-Related Macular Degeneration:-

It is the most common type of Macular degeneration but still, there is no treatment for dry Macular degeneration. In contrast, patients with Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration have yellow deposits in the retina, called Drusen. Few small Drusen may not cause changes in your vision. But as they get bigger and more numerous the mite dim or distorts your vision. As the condition gets worse, the light-sensitive cells in your macular get thinner and eventually die. In the atrophic form, you may have blind spots in the center of your vision. As that gets worse you might lose Central vision. Loss of Central vision creates a lot of troubles, especially in reading and driving.

2.Wet form of Age-Related Macular Degeneration:-

This form is less common but much more serious. Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration is when the new abnormal blood vessels grow underneath the retina. These blood vessels may leak blood or other fluids, causing a scar of the macula. That’s why straight lines look zigzag and wavy as well as blind spots and loss of Central vision, gradually it leads to permanent loss of vision. In this case, vision loss is faster than dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Many people don’t realize they have Age-Related Macular Degeneration until their vision is very blurry. This is why it is important to have a regular vision of an ophthalmologist.

DIAGNOSIS FOR  AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION 

MD causes your vision to change your time. You may not notice the changes when they happen. So a regular routine eye examination can spot age-related macular degeneration. An eye specialist would easily be able to detect the presence of Drusen- tiny yellow deposits under the retina or pigment clumping. The Ophthalmologists use an Amsler grid to diagnose the sign of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

PROPHYLACTIC THERAPY TO PREVENT AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

Vitamins and antioxidants supplementation:-

The role of antioxidant and Vitamin supplements may prevent progression to late  Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

The recommendation as a daily dose is:-

●       Vitamin C :500mg
●      Vitamin E : 400 mg
●      Lutein : 10 mg
●      Zeaxanthin : 12 mg
●      Zinc : 20-50  mg
●      Copper: 2mg

Other measures:-

●      The cessation of smoking may slow progress.
●      Green leafy vegetables to be used liberally.
●      Regular consumption of oily fish may also be useful.
●     Protective measures against excessive sunlight exposure should be considered.

2. Transpupillary thermotherapy:-

A diode laser (810 nm) may be considered for subfoveal occult CNVM (choroidal neovascular membrane).

3. Photodynamic therapy (PDT):-

In this treatment, a photosensitizer or light-activated drug known as verteporfin is injected intravenously. Which is used to damage the abnormal blood vessels inside the retina? The light-activated dye then causes disruption of cellular structures and occlusion of CNVM (choroidal neovascular membrane) with minimum damage to the adjacent photoreceptor and capillaries.

4. Low vision aid:-

These devices have specialized lenses or electronic systems that help produce enlarged images of nearby objects that help people whose vision has been lost from Age-Related Macular Degeneration. It helps them make the most of the remaining vision.

5.Anti-Angiogenesis drugs:

These medications block new blood vessels from developing and prevent leakage from the abnormal blood vessels within the eye that cause wet Macular degeneration. This treatment hedge brought a major change in the disease and many patients have actually regained their lost vision.

6.Laser therapy:

To damage the leaky actively growing blood vessels, laser light can sometimes be used.

7. Retinal translocation:-

A procedure to destroy abnormal blood vessels under the center of your macular, where your doctor can’t use a laser beam safely. In this procedure, your doctor rotates the center of your macular away from the abnormal blood vessels to a healthy area of your retina. This keeps you from having scar tissue and more damage to your retina. Then your doctor uses a laser to treat the abnormal blood vessels.

8. Submacular surgery :

Submacular surgery to remove Choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM).

PREVENTION FROM AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION 

Ophthalmologists suggest more vitamins and antioxidant supplements prevent Age-Related Macular Degeneration. They consume healthy food with vitamin C, D, E, beta carotene, zinc, and copper. Which decreased the risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

CONCLUSION

As the above-mentioned symptoms and signs of Age-Related Macular Degeneration shows that it can’t give its effect in the early stages. People come to know about this when their vision tends to be lost. So previously the ophthalmologist always gives suggestions to the routine examination of the eyes. That’s why eye care is important at every stage of life. The best treatment for Age-Related Macular Degeneration is available in Delhi, India. In fact, the medical and surgical facilities in Delhi eye hospitals rival those of the best in the world. The world-class treatment that is available in Delhi is far more affordable than most hospitals abroad.
In fact, all of the treatment modalities of age-related macular degeneration are available in most of the high-end eye hospitals in Delhi, along with sophisticated diagnostic equipment, lasers, operation theaters, and highly trained and acclaimed retina surgeons.

The best for the treatment of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Delhi includes Eye Mantra Foundation.

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