LASIK Eye Surgery
LASIK stands for Laser-Assisted in Situ Keratomileusis and it is basically a corrective eye surgery used to treat irregular conditions of the eye i.e. Myopia (Near Sightedness), Hyperopia (Far-Sightedness) and Astigmatism (Eye Curvature problem).
LASIK, as it’s full form suggests is a laser eye surgery in which a layer of the cornea called the stroma is reshaped so that the light focuses more accurately on the retina. The Lasik eye surgery uses cool ultraviolet rays with highly specialized lasers and sophisticated tools to clear up the front portion of the eye and that’s why it is also sometimes called eyelid surgery.
The laser treatment for eyes is generally a painless procedure and barely takes around 20 minutes for both eyes.
Looking to get LASER correction for specs removal?
In today’s world of smartphones, laptops and, other devices, continued strain on the eyes can introduce refractive errors . Refractive errors are basically when excessive stress causes a change in the shape of the eyeand prevents light from focusing directly on the retina. Some symptoms of refractive errors include double vision, haziness, headaches, eye strain, sqinting and glare among others.
A comprehensive dilated eye examination by an eye-care professional can help diagnose these refractive errors. In order to correct these refractive errors, many people opt for corrective surgeries. Many people also opt for the surgery for removing their spectacles .The surgery for correcting refractive errors is performed via femtosecond laser or an excimer laser and a microkeratome. Generally, in this corrective eye surgery, the surgeons cut up a small circular ‘flap’ of the cornea . This flap then folded back to access the underlying cornea and perform the laser treatment for eyes.
What Refractive Problems Does LASIK Laser Eye Surgery Correct?
Refractive errors are pretty common nowadays, with 22.9% of the world population having the condition of myopia and about 10% having hyperopia that makes about for about 2.5 billion people having one eye imperfection or the other. In India alone, close to 20% teenagers have an eye condition this is mainly caused by over extne.
Now that we have discussed the refractive errors, let’s take a look at how laser surgery for correction can help improve your vision for the various imperfections of the eye. LASIK has been proven to to be effective for resolving these errors in a superior fashion as compared to contact lenses and specacles. Maybe wearing spectacles/contact lenses and taking care of them doesn’t suit your personal lifestyle and you would rather get a surgery to get it fixed. The laser corrective eye surgery helps resolve the following issues.
Myopia [Near Sightedness]
Myopia or nearsightedness is a condition of the eye in which the eye can focus nearby objects perfectly but, far-away objects are not focused properly..This could lead to problems like not being able to identify far away objects along with hadaches, eye strains and other effects if not attended to quickly. In myopia, the eye shape gets a little elongated which causes errors in the focusing of the eye. In the laser eye surgery correction for myopia, the aim is basically to flatten the cornea to help focus the light properly onto the retina.
Myopia is basically treated by reducing the steep curvature of the cornea and deacreasing the focusing power of the eye. Hence, by making the cornea flatter the images focusing infront of the retian will now focus directly onto the retina .This is reason if you ever had spectacles for improving far away vision, they have a negative power lens.
Hyperopia [Far Sightedness]
Hyperopia or Far Sightedness is in many ways the reverse condition of myopia, where the eye can distinguish far-away objects clearly but, nearby objects are hard to visualize. Like myopia, Hyperopia, if not attended to quickly can cause severe headaches and blurred vision.In hyperopia, as opposed to myopia, the eye curvature becomes shorter than normal leading to a decreased focusing power resulting in near-by objects getting blurry.
In the laser eye surgery for hyperopia, the objective thus becomes to elongate the eye and making the cornea a little bit steeper in order to increase the focusing power of the eye. Doing this will help bring back the light focusing behind the retina to focus properly, improving your vision and your daily life along with it.
Astigmatism might sound like a very complicated term but it basically means that the eyes are not completely round. In more sepecific techincal terms, astigmatism is basically a problem of the curvature of eyes.
Basically, in astigmatism the curvature of the eyes is not completely symmetrical adn the cornea is irregular. Irregularities in the cornea cause light to scatter around and cause distortions in visions .In the corrective eye surgery for astigmatism , the curvature of eye is made smooth and in symmetry by selectively reshaping the irregular portions of the cornea .
Types of LASIK Eye Surgeries
Understanding the Need for Refractive Correction
Your eyes are the windows to the world they help you percieve and interact with your surroundings. Any harm or imperfection in the eyes can not only hurt your vision but it can effect and cause a hindarance in your day to day activities if not treated properly. Basically refractive errors occur because of errors in the focusing power of the eyes. It could be because the eye size is smaller or larger or it could be because of irregularities in the eye’s cornea.
Some of the symptoms to recognize refractive errors are occuring with your eyes are as follows:
- Double Vision
- Glare or halos around bright lights
The refractive errors of the eye if not dealt with over long periods of time could lead to these symptopms intensifying and causing long-term defects in the eye or eye diseases.
As we have discussed, refractive errors occur due to elongation, shrinking or irregularities in the curvature of eye as well as the cornea. In order to correct the refractive errors, there are 3 methods that can be delpoyed.
- Eyeglasses- Simple way to correct errors in the eye to a reasonable limit. Good for a temporary solution .Not precise because errors in manufacture of lens power, miscalculation of appropriate lens power required could be harmful. Getting eyeglasses of the wrong prescription can hurt more than help by causing headaches, and blurred vision but most important of all getting a wrong prescription of spectacles could lead even further degradation of vision. In addition to this, spectacles need cleaning, maintainence and constant care.
- Contact Lenses- These are a little more efficient and better in correcting vision as compared to spectacles. The correct the vision by becoming the first refractive surface of the light entering the eyes, helping to focus them better, provide a greater field of vision. Eye contact lenses become very cumbersome and tough to manage after a point of time because they need to be fitted properly and you need to constantly keep washing your eyes in order to avoid injuries or infections.
- Refractive Surgery- Refractive surgeries are among one of the best corrective surgeries to improve the lifestyle of an individual . Refractive surgeries directly address the issue with the irregularities of the eye and serve as a long-term solution to addresssing the refractive errors of the eye.However, the surgery is recomeended only for people who have been deemed eligibile by a certain eye-care specitalist, opthalmologist or an eye institute.
The eye surgery can be a great option for following people:
- Looking to reduce/ eliminate the dependence on corrective glasses or lenses
- Having no eye diseases
- Acccept the inherent risks involved with the procedure.
Frequently Asked Questions
- Put the anti-biotic eye drops in both the eyes as recommended by your eye doctor, 6 times a day, one day before the procedure.
- Do not use perfumes, powder, makeup on eyes and face on the day of LASIK.
- It is preferable to stop using contact lens 1 week before surgery. A small relaxation is permissible in consultation with your doctor
- Wash your hair on the day of LASIK so that you don’t feel the urge to wash them for next 2-3 days.
- Take a normal light meal before coming for LASIK.
On reaching the LASIK centre>
A final re-check on your vision will be done by an optometrist
You would be asked to sign a consent form
Just before the procedure, an instruction card will be given to you. Read the instructions carefully
A LASIK executive will explain the steps of the procedure to you
LASIK is done on both eyes in the same sitting
It takes about 15 minutes to do LASIK on both the eyes
The actual laser time is about 10 seconds per eye
If you are undergoing a bladeless LASIK or Contoura Vision, you need to go through two laser machines, a Femto laser and an Excimer laser, however, if you are undergoing any other LASIK type, you need to go through only an Excimer laser
Under the Excimer laser, you are to fix your sight to a green blinking light in the machine
Numbing eye drops will be instilled in your eyes
The procedure is pain free
There are no injections used
No bandage is used on the eyes
Jobs that are more physically demanding and involve exposure to liquids or dust might require a more graduated return to full activities, but are best discussed with your surgeon.
You may opt to choose for lenses which provide you vision for distance and near. In such cases, dependency on glasses is reduced.
Routine surgery can only correct the spherical component of the eye leaving behind the cylinder power which has to be later corrected by additional prescription glasses.
With advancements in surgical techniques and IOL (artificial lens) designs, today both spherical and cylinder components of the eye can easily be corrected with the highest precision.
The cylinder component in Cataract Surgery can be corrected by three ways
- LRI or Limbal Relaxing Incisions: In this technique, a Femto Laser is used to give highly precise incisions at the periphery of the cornea to induce cylinder correction. Since these incisions are given by a laser, it can only be coupled with a Femto Cataract Surgery.
- Toric Lenses with Verion Digital Axis Marking: Toric lenses are special lenses which have both cylinder, and spherical component build in one lens. Since cylinder axis varies in individual eyes, the lens has to be aligned to the specific axis of the individual. In such cases, even a minor deviation from the original axis can cause significant disturbance in final visual outcomes. Now with the introduction of Verion Digital Axis Marking system, these toric lenses can be aligned with outmost precision, up to 1 degree.
- Toric Lenses with Manual Marking: As discussed above, the final visual outcome in a toric lens depends on how precisely it is aligned to the original cylindrical axis of the eye. Since the manual markings cannot be as precise as digital markings, the manual system may give slightly inferior results compared to the digital system.
Dr. Shweta Jain
“Qualification:MBBS, DNB (Opthal)”
Dr. Rajiv Mohan
“Dr. Rajiv Mohan is a renowned ophthalmologist who has been instrumental in providing quality eye care and education in Northern India, both in private and charitable sectors. He received his medical degree from University College of Medical Sciences, Delhi in 1985 and Masters in Ophthalmology from Karnataka University in 1989. In 1990 he did his advanced medical training in the field of vitreo- retina from England and got his FRCS (Glasgow) in 2002. ”
Dr. Sanjiv Mohan
“Qualification: MBBS from SMS medical college Jaipur
MS from Dharwad university, Belgaum.
Trained for higher surgical training in Scotland U.K for 2 years.
Experience: Dr. Sanjiv Mohan has an experience of over 18 years as an Ophthalmologist”